The Finns used a variety of rifles but primarily the Mosin-Nagant, so let’s just quickly cover the various Finnish-made versions. For every Russian style there is certainly some Finnish use, but these are the models that were constructed by Finnish armories and depots.
|Length||51.5″||Barrel Length||31.5″||Weight||9.5 lbs|
The first Finnish Mosins were pure Russian rifles captured from armories within the country. Later refurbished models, rebarreled and even restocked, would be constructed by various arsenals. We already have a more detailed article on the Finnish M91’s here.
These will be found with a broad mix of features depending on when they were manufactured.
Variants: Original Russian, SAT, Tikkakoski (early and later), “P-Series”, VKT, and B
Civil Guard m/24
|Length||51.2″||Barrel Length||31.5″||Weight||9.6 lbs|
This model is popularly known as the “Lotta Rifle” as the Lotta Svärd women’s auxiliary organization raised money to fund the refurbishment. Four companies: SIG, Oscar Will, Roemerwerke, and Venuswaffenfabrik were contracted for new made barrels. The contract with SIG was first and these are the rarest variation as they do not have the stepped barrel we see in our example. Technically the SIGs are the same as other reworked 1891’s. The three remaining German companies were all marked “Bohler Stahl.” These feature a heavier barrel for improved accuracy but had to be turned down near the muzzle in order to fit the standard Russian spike bayonet.
Variants: Bohler Stahl, SIG
Civil Guard m/24 Carbine
|Length||~45″||Barrel Length||24″||Weight||? lbs|
A very small run of 650 carbines were produced from cut-down m/24 rifles in 1932. These were not milled for a bayonet and feature a front sight protector like the m/28. They are exceptionally rare.
Army m/27 Rifle
|Length||46.8″||Barrel Length||27″||Weight||9.4 lbs|
These rifles were assembled exclusively for the Army. The m/27 features a new made heavy barrel, updated rear sights, new bayonet lugs, and sight protector. May or may not have a sling swivel below the butt stock or original slot. Those produced later have a reinforced forward barrel band. There is also a “Ski Trooper” variation with double sling slots in the rear to aid in carrying the rifle while skiing.
Variants: Tikkakoski, VKT
Army m/27 rv
|Length||44″||Barrel Length||23″||Weight||? lbs|
Beginning in 1933 a run of m/27 cavalry carbines were begun. With only 2,500 produced, it ranks high among rare Finnish rifles. These have the reinforced band, a stock hole for a side sling, turned down bolt, and were made at Tikkakoski.
Civil Guard m/28 Rifle
|Length||46.8″||Barrel Length||27″||Weight||9.3 lbs|
Extremely similar to the m/27, this Civil Guard rifle’s main improvement is in the forward barrel band. Discarding the hinged barrel band, the Civil Guard opted for a solid one. The first 6,000 also included a second sling to better position the rifle for ski troops. This was later reduced back to one.
Variants: SIG, Tikkakoski
Civil Guard m/28-30
|Length||46.8″||Barrel Length||27″||Weight||9.6 lbs|
The m/28-30 is a fantastically accurate rifle with an even heavier barrel than the m/28. It features an improved rear sight with finer, easier adjustment and better manipulation. This would go on the be a standard feature for both branches. Improved bedding of the barrel and a front sight adjustment screw make this a marksman’s dream.
Most will be marked by SAKO, but some m/28 were updated to the m/28-30 pattern and will retain their original barrels. These are rare and it is suggested they were paid for out of pocket by soldiers.
Variants: Tikkakoski, SIG, Updated M28’s
Standard Issue m/39 Rifle
|Length||46.8″||Barrel Length||27″||Weight||9.5 lbs|
Finally the Finnish Defense Forces put the Army and Civil Guard on the same page and pushed for the adoption of a single, standard rifle. The improved m/28-30 sight was modified slightly and readopted. Dual sling swivels were provided so the guns could be issued to mounted or infantry troops. A heavy barrel was, again, present, although the bedding was simpler than the m/28-30. It uses a hinged forward barrel like the m/27. An updated stock was provided with a semi-pistol grip and high comb to assist the shooter, although some have been noted with older straight stocks.
Variants: SAKO, SAKO Sk.Y, VKT, Tikkakoski, B, Unmarked
|Length||48.5″||Barrel Length||28.7″||Weight||9.6 lbs|
Capturing large numbers of newer Mosin-Nagant M91/30 rifles, Finland began a rebuilding program for the worst of their new supply. Tikkakoski produced new barrels and the front sights were usually improved. Some models were refitted with heavier forestocks while retaining the Soviet rear, some received all new stocks. These both will display the Finnish two-piece stock splicing.
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